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30.09.2019

The Future of Digital Currency. CloudCoinWiki Part IV / The White Paper

WHITE PAPER
INTRODUCING CLOUD CURRENCIES
And
THE REDUNDANT ARRAY of INDEPENDENT DETECTION AGENTS
Sean H. Worthington
Department of Computer Science
Butte College, Oroville, CA United States of America


Abstract - A novel electronic currency with superior characteristics to cryptocurrencies is introduced. The money takes the form of JPEG images or text files that can be passed from person to person electronically. Users can instantly detect counterfeits by using a novel grouping of server clouds called RAIDA (Redundant Array of Independent Detection Agents). The RAIDA employs multiple clouds to ensure that the detection process cannot be controlled or destroyed by a minority of cloud entities. The value and stability of the currency depend upon the integrity and trustworthiness of the RAIDA.

Keywords:

Electronic money;
Economics;
Electronic commerce;
International trade.

INTRODUCTION

With the success of Bitcoin [Nakamoto. (2008, October 31). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System [Online]. Available:http://www.cryptovest.co.uk] and other cryptocurrencies, the question of what the essence of money is and what would be a perfect electronic currency drives this research. An information systems approach has been employed and a monetary system based on the trust/integrity of a group of cloud networks have been implemented. The resulting system performs better than Bitcoin.

THE HYPOTHESES

Money is Data - The first hypothesis is that money, the tokens we hold, the coins, bills, and numbers in our bank accounts are part of a bigger system - an information system. Specifically, a distributed database that is physically implemented among people. Each one of us oversees holding a small part of the data. Each one of us uses our minds to process the information provided by our own money to economize. We communicate key information to each other via prices. The interaction between money and our behavior allows us to spontaneously organize our behavior to create an efficient economy.

No Counterfeits - The Essential Characteristic of Money. The second hypothesis is that the value of money does not arise from the substance that it is made of but from the effort required to counterfeit it and its integrity as data. Gold coins, paper dollars, electronic Bitcoins are all made of different stuff and yet they are all used as money, and all of them are valuable. Monetary systems made of gold, paper money and Bitcoin are very difficult to counterfeit but IT IS not impossible. Gold can be mined and minted into duplicate coins.

Paper money can be printed by expert counterfeiters and by a treasury itself, Bitcoins can be “mined” by solving puzzles [Eyal and E Gun Sirer, “Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable”, in Financial Cryptography and Data Security: 18 th International Conference, FC 2014, Christ Church, Barbados, March 3-7, 2014, pp. 436-454]. However, “perfect money” cannot be counterfeited.

EXPERIMENT DESIGN

Building on the hypothesis that the essential attribute of money is that it cannot be counterfeited, a process was developed and implemented to provide for the detection of counterfeits.

Assuming the hypothesis “money is data” is true, a monetary system was designed to give its money integrity in the same way that a database would be designed to give its data integrity. To achieve the general goal of data integrity, a redundant and robust system of clouds governed by a consortium of independent multinational organizations was designed. The end result is called RAIDA. It should be noted that a patent was filed for Cloud-Based authentication systems, a “CloudCoin Consortium” was created and a digital currency was minted and deployed in the RAIDA.

SIMPLE EXPLANATION OF HOW THE CURRENCY WORKS

I have a JPEG image with twenty-five random GUIDs (Globally Unique Identifiers) embedded in it that only I know. We call this JPEG a CloudCoin. Each RAIDA cloud knows one of the twenty-five GUIDs. I can prove to you that I am the owner by authenticating the GUIDs in parallel with the RAIDA using simple free open-source software made by the Consortium.

If I want to buy something from you, I will give you the JPEG image and now we both know the secret numbers. Anyone who knows the secret numbers can change them by contacting the RAIDA. Now you can use the secret numbers to change them to your own secret numbers. Now, you are the owner of the CloudCoin, and I no longer know the numbers registered in the RAIDA.

COMPONENTS OF THE CLOUD CURRENCY

The three major components of the system are the e-Mint, CloudCoin, and the RAIDA.

e-Mint: The entity that creates the CloudCoin, disperses it to the initial owners and registers them in the RAIDA. After the minting process is complete, the eMint is destroyed along with any resulting data. After minting, the amount of money in the system will not increase nor decrease.

CloudCoin: JPEG images used as electronic money that contain codes that prevent them from being counterfeited. The codes include:

• SN (Serial Number): A 32-bit number displayed in dotdecimal like an IP address (e.g. 1.210.84.52). the SN is used to determine the denomination of the money and help the RAIDA clouds store and protect it. The first octet of the SN is the network address and shows which RAIDA the CloudCoin belongs to. There is now only one RAIDA. However, should CloudCoin become too valuable, the networks are to be doubled/replicated so that all owners will have twice the money they had before. This doubling can occur as many as eight times, each time adding more fault tolerance to the system. The second octet is the subnet. This allows users and software to identify the denomination of the currency and take measures to protect more valuable currencies. The last two octets are the address. The length of the address fixes the exact number of monetary units in the system.

• ANs (Authenticity Number): Randomly generated binary numbers 16 bytes in length only known to the owner of the currency and the disparate RAIDA Clouds. There are 25 ANs, one for each primary RAIDA Cloud. Parity information is calculated based on these ANs to be stored by the RAIDA Parity Clouds.

• Denomination: There is a fixed amount of each denomination of currency in the system.

These denominations correspond to the subnet portion of the SN. For example, any currency with a subnet between 96 and 255 is a 250 CloudCoin unit. Denominations come in 1’s, 5’s, 25’s, 100’s and 250’s.





RAIDA (Redundant Array of Independent Agents):

A distributed storage system that works as a Counterfeit Detection System and provides fault tolerance, high availability, and decentralized management in order to create trust in the CloudCoin. The RAIDA has 25 Clouds. The RAIDA is designed so that if clouds go offline, new clouds can quickly be brought in to replace them. Each Cloud has a “sentinel” cluster that hides 32 “Detective Agents” behind it. At least nine of an exact arrangement of cloud operators

would need to collude undetected to corrupt the system. The RAIDA is unique because unlike other authentication systems, there are twenty-five unique CloudCoin slices that authenticate in parallel. The coin need not authenticate with all of them. The components of the RAIDA include:

• PAN (Proposed Authenticity Number): A randomly generated binary number 16 bytes in length created by the person who is taking ownership of the purported genuine CloudCoin.

• RAIDA Cloud (Counterfeit Detection Agent): A cloudbased service that verifies a CloudCoin’s Authenticity Number and can replace it with the Proposed Authenticity Number during CloudCoin exchanges. The exchange process is called “Password Owing” and the word “pown” was invented to describe it. The RAIDA is logically arranged for self-repair by adding a system of “Triple Kerberos” that allows fracked RAIDA Clouds to change their stored authenticity numbers by trusting three other RAIDA Clouds that do authenticate. The purpose is to ensure that data is not lost even if a RAIDA cloud is destroyed or unavailable. The word “fracked” was invented to mean a RAIDA cloud that does not authenticate a coin while all the other RAIDA clouds do.

• Counterfeit Detection Request: An encrypted message that triggers counterfeit detection and ownership change. The message includes the Denomination, Serial Number, Authenticity Number, and Proposed Authenticity Number.


THE PROCESS OF EXCHANGE (POWNING)

The CloudCoin is passed electronically from the Current Owner to the Candidate Owner.

The Candidate Owner opens the CloudCoin JPEG file in software that they trust and checks the denomination on the CloudCoin to see if it matches what the CloudCoin is purported to be. This thwarts any attempts to pass smaller denominations as higher denominations. The denomination of a CloudCoin can be determined by examining the subnet part of its serial number. If there is a difference, then the transaction ends. If the denomination matches the item, then process proceeds.

The Candidate Owner sends a Counterfeit Detection Request to twenty-five data holding RAIDA clouds. Embedded in the request are the denomination, serial number, and corresponding authenticity number. The clouds will see if the authenticity number data sent to them agree with the denomination and serial number that they have in their storage. If the numbers do not match, then they respond as Counterfeit otherwise they respond as Authentic. Now the Candidate Owner knows the currency is authentic and they can take ownership. The Candidate Owner’s software generates twenty-five random PANs (Proposed Authenticity Numbers) to replace the ANs. The Candidate Owner sends a Take-Ownership-Request to the twenty-five RAIDA clouds. Embedded in each request are the denomination, serial number, the corresponding AN (Authenticity Number) and the PAN (Proposed Authenticity Number) or their corresponding parity data.

25 detection agents in the RAIDA will see if the Authorization Number data matches the Denomination and Serial Number that it has in its storage.

If the numbers match, then the stored Authenticity Numbers will be replaced with the Proposed Authenticity Numbers. Now, only the Candidate Owner knows all these numbers, hence the Candidate Owner becomes the new Owner. The new Owner then writes over the original JPEG with a modified version that reflects the new secret Authenticity Numbers.



FIXING REDUNDANCY

It is likely that the RAIDA clouds will not be available 100% of the time. This is not a problem as only 10 of the RAIDA clouds are necessary for authentication.

If some of the RAIDA clouds respond that the CloudCoin is counterfeit, these servers can be corrected by the client issuing Fix Redundancy Requests. The Fix Redundancy Requests use a form of Kerberos to allow RAIDA clouds to send encrypted data through the CloudCoin owners. The keys for the encryption are known to the RAIDA cloud’s redundancy partners. The authentication for the CloudCoin is stored in the CloudCoin files themselves. The redundancy of the CloudCoin is controlled by the user.

THE EXPERIMENT

Twenty RAIDA Administrators of different nationalities were recruited and Twenty-five clusters were set up in the following countries: Australia, Macedonia, Philippines, Serbia, Bulgaria, France, Switzerland, United Kingdom, India, USA, Sweden, Canada, Romania, Taiwan, Russia, Columbia, Singapore, Germany, Venezuela, Ukraine and Luxembourg.

This process required three months to complete.


Figure 1: CloudCoin with embedded Authenticity codes.

The operating systems consisted of Microsoft Windows and variations of Linux. The RAIDA protocol was implemented is ASPX and PHP. Client-side software was created including an Android application called CloudCoin Consortium Pocket Bank. CloudCoins were passed by email through five different people using the applications. Each person took ownership of the CloudCoins. During the experiment, unfortunately, the administrator for RAIDA #5 was found dead at his computer. Because of this, RAIDA #5’s data became unmanageable. RAIDA #5 was taken out of the network and a new RAIDA # 5 was implemented. The CloudCoins in the test became fracked (fractured meaning that not all the Authenticity Numbers authenticated). However, within seconds, each CloudCoin was able to fix itself as the system was designed. The experiment concluded on February 4 th , 2017.

In this way, CloudCoin has been shown to be useful as an electronic currency and that the RAIDA invention works as a new fault-tolerant authentication system. The RAIDA performed much better than the block-chain used by Bitcoin because the RAIDA required less than two seconds to perform a transaction. The RAIDA required no user accounts or large software as opposed to semi-private with Bitcoins. A patent has been filed for the RAIDA technology with the USPTO. A Trademark claim has been filed for “CloudCoin” The CloudCoin Consortium is now preparing to provide CloudCoins as a global currency and transactions will be offered for free as the RAIDA will be funded by the scavenging of lost CloudCoins.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

It has yet to be seen whether the CloudCoin cloud-based currency will become accepted as real currency. However, the concept of a cloud currency has features that would make it superior to cryptocurrencies. Because cloud currencies such as CloudCoin do not require any user accounts and do not collect or track any user data (except the month of a CloudCoin’s last transaction), CloudCoin is more private than Bitcoin [3]. Because CloudCoin does not depend on encryption and it is impossible to double spend.

CloudCoin is safe from quantum computer decryption which may become an issue soon. Also, the infrastructure of CloudCoin can be self-funded by allowing RAIDA providers to scavenge lost CloudCoins (CloudCoins that have not been spent or checked in years) to pay for their operations. Cloud Currencies like CloudCoin do not require special software, wallets or data and thus are much easier to use.



Sean H. Worthington PhD ABD for CloudCoin Consortium.

To be continued...

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29.09.2019

RAIDA Guardians

The RAIDA's backup DNS (Domain Name System) and CDN (Content Delivery Network) are not as reliable or robust as we need them to be. Recently, the Communist Party of China blocked CloudCoin.Global and I do not believe our backup systems worked as required.

So we have a new plan that will ensure that the RAIDA's backup DNS and CDN are absolutely indestructible. We want to give our software many more ways to reach the RAIDA.

That is why we are creating the RAIDA "Guardians".

The Guardians will have small servers in there homes. These servers will act as revers-poxy servers and DNS servers. And they will hold critical web pages that should not be taken down.



Why be a Guardian?

1. Most importantly you will be part of a global effort to create a perfect monetary system that will increase the freedom and prosperity of everyone. You will also help to destroy authoritarian governments who rely on currency manipulation for their existence. That's fun!

2. You will become a lifelong voting member of the Consortium so long as you keep your Guardian server up.

3. The Consortium will pay you a one-time payment of 100,000 CloudCoins.

To be a Guardian you must:
1. Be a libertarian and love liberty and be willing to be part of a project that authoritarians will try to destroy when we are successful. (PS. The only way to avoid being destroyed is to be so powerful that they would not dare even to try)

2. Agree to he Guardian's constitution and pass the philosophical exam.

3. Know enough about computers to be able to turn them on, plug them in, type and follow instructions on how to configure them. Experience installing operating systems and software is a big plus. Can you plug a monitor in? Plug in a keyboard? Type more than 20 words per minute? If you can't do simple things then you will not be helping but just slowing us down.

4. You must purchase a computer for less than $100. The computer would look something like this



5. You must buy a Domain name in the country that you live in. If you live in Japan, you might buy a domain like raidagardian.jp, if you live in Russia, raidaguardian.ru.

6. You must have an Internet connection and electricity. The faster and more reliable the better but

7. Although we will probably configure the servers to update themselves, you must be willing to spend a few hours each month updating the server software if something goes wrong.

Your to know that it may be many months before we implement this plan.

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28.09.2019

CloudCoin Bulletin 99


Did quantum breakthrough cause crypto crash?

We reported last week on an astonishing breakthrough with quantum computing as Google achieved 'quantum supremacy' with a 53-qubit computer. The trading price of most blockchain-based cryptocurrencies tumbled as much as 20% in the days that followed. Many analysts have drawn links between the events, as bitcoin and every other blockchain-based asset will likely become obsolete with the coming advent of quantum computers.



Quantum computers rely on quantum mechanical phenomena like superposition and quantum entanglement to boost computational power millions of times versus conventional computers. Quantum supremacy is the ability of a quantum computer to outperform the processing capability of a traditional computer. Google's achievement was limited to one specific task, but quantum computing technology continues to advance at an increasingly rapid pace. Technology once thought to be decades away could be a reality in mere months. RAIDA is the only quantum-safe blockchain alternative for digital assets.
RAIDA MAIL and RAIDA DATA in development
Two related new applications for RAIDA technology are in the works.

RAIDA MAIL is a text and communications suite that allows peers to communicate in a closed, highly-secure environment.

RAIDA DATA is the next-generation of data transfer and authentication, enabling collection and transmission of data from remote points.

Both solutions represent 100% safe and secure data transfer protocols that simply cannot be hacked, intercepted, compromised or manipulated, even by quantum computers.

They allow real-time transfers at the fastest possible speeds while safeguarding information and respecting the environment. These enterprise-level data protection and collaboration toolkits offer a provisionally-patented, globally-scalable, post-blockchain system that is simple and affordable.

Best of all, CloudCoins will be used as "tickets" for each transmission, increasing the utility and demand for the currency.
Final days for RAIDAtech funding round
September 30 is the deadline to participate in the second funding round for RAIDAtech , the private company that develops new applications for RAIDA technology.

The crowdfunding offering page has information about the company, applications and its potential, including the $1 trillion-plus market for RAIDAtech applications.

The offering page also features a video invitation from Shark Tank's Kevin Harrington extolling the value of investing in RAIDAtech.

RAIDAtech is now valued at $11 million and any investor anywhere can take part in this funding round with a minimum investment of $200. The earlier round was limited to only a small number of investors. This second funding round is managed by crowdfunding platform truCrowd.

RAIDAtech was founded last year by Sean Worthington and is a separate entity from the CloudCoin Consortium, although RAIDAtech's success will also benefit CloudCoin by expanding utility and value of the RAIDA network's native currency.
Earn CloudCoins & $$$ as a RAIDA Detection Agent
There are still slots remaining for people interested in becoming founding RAIDA Detection Agents.

Operators of these units help make the RAIDA network stronger, faster, and more secure. Operators earn a portion of network traffic revenues, as well as
a bonus paid in Cloudcoins. Be advised, however, there are a limited number of special "Founders" opportunities available.

There is also a referral program where you can become a Detection Agent, with zero licensing fees, simply by referring potential operators.

Email solutions@raidatech.com for more information about becoming a Detection Agent operator or joining the referral program.
Fast Facts
RAIDA technology has applications far beyond enabling CloudCoin, the world's first perfect, discrete, digital currency.

RAIDA's protocols are three sextillion (3e+21) times more secure than legacy blockchains and can protect sensitive customer data for companies like Door Dash , which has disclosed a data breach affecting 5 million customers. The breach included names, emails, addresses, order histories, phone numbers, passwords, and partial credit card or bank account numbers. Hackers even stole the driver's license numbers of delivery drivers!

Every company that handles its customers' sensitive data should be using RAIDA technology to safeguard that information.
CloudCoin Telegram users top 18,000
Telegram continues to be the largest and fastest growing social media, communications and networking platform of choice for CloudCoin users, with total users surpassing 18,000 across several groups.

If you aren't following CloudCoin on Telegram, you're missing out on hundreds of posts, messages and images every day.

CloudCoin related Telegram groups include:


Interested in using your talents to make a difference?
Are you interested in using your talents and experience to make a difference? Do you have a passion for learning about the revolutionary new world of digital currency? Would you like to connect with like-minded, liberty-loving people from around the globe?

Consider joining the CloudCoin Consortium. There are opportunities available in numerous capacities. Whether you can spare a few hours a week or devote several hours a day working from the privacy and comfort of your own home, or are available to join us in our California HQ, we encourage you to apply. If you have experience in any of the following fields, visit our Opportunities page with a resume or CV.

  • Social Media pros and community managers
  • Marketers and PR experts
  • Content creators
  • Web developers
  • Filmmakers and video specialists
  • Graphic designers
  • Writers and bloggers
  • Attorneys/Paralegals
  • Grant Writers
  • Software developers/programmers
  • Software testers for all operating systems
  • Software solutions salespeople
  • Minecraft developers/modders
  • Electron programmers
  • HR/personnel professionals
  • Accounting/bookkeeping professionals
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21.09.2019

CloudCoin Bulletin 98

Bulletin #98
Software complete for peer-to-peer exchange
The client and server software for a new peer-to-peer (P2P) exchange was completed Sept 17 and a graphical user interface (GUI) added the following day, which will now enter a testing phase before payment systems are connected.

"One of the exciting features of the exchange is the addition of a user profile," CloudCoin Lead Scientist Sean Worthington said, "This profile is kept on the user's computer and is completely controlled by the user. It will allow any number of exchanges to exist to which the user can connect with the same ID, profile and address."

Worthington said the exchange apps will be decentralized so that hackers cannot stop transactions by bringing down exchange servers.
Prototype P2P GUI
Historic CloudCoin change system deployed
In a historic first, CloudCoin developers have successfully implemented a digital currency change system.

The change service is the first to allow a discrete digital currency that uses different denominations efficiently. Most digital currencies rely on single units ('coins' or 'tokens') for all transactions. CloudCoin can be faster and more efficient because, like fiat currencies, it uses denominations. A transfer of 1 million CloudCoins can be done as 4,000 units (250-CloudCoin notes), while for any other digital currency, that transfer must be 1 million units.

Being able to make change correctly is a vitally important element to using a denominated currency. Suppose a seller is charging 245 CloudCoins for a purchase, but the buyer only has a 250 CloudCoin note (not exact change).  The buyer can tell their CloudCoin Wallet software to send the seller 245 CloudCoins, and the wallet will automatically go to a public change service (of the users choice) and have the 250 note broken down into smaller denominations, in this case: two 100's, one 25 and five 5's. Then the wallet will keep the 5-CloudCoin note and send the rest (245) to the seller.

"The whole process will take less than four seconds, CloudCoin Lead Scientist Sean Worthington said, "No logins or accounts are required. I love it when the theoretical becomes real!"
Android, iPhone apps under development
CloudCoin Consortium programmers are working to convert new CloudCoin Wallet software to Android and iPhone apps. The apps will allows users to get a free CloudCoin to use as a CloudBank address or Skywallet.cc address, which will then enable them easily send or receive other CloudCoins very easily.

It will also allow CloudCoins to be embedded in QR codes, which will have commercial applications in packaging, rewards programs and customer engagement. Users will simply scan the code and CloudCoins will be banked on their phones.
Prototype CloudCoin QR code
10 days left for RAIDAtech funding round
There are only 10 days remaining to participate in the second funding round for RAIDAtech , the private company that develops new applications for RAIDA technology.

The crowdfunding offering page has information about the company, applications and its potential, including the $1 trillion-plus market for RAIDAtech applications.

The offering page also features a video invitation from Shark Tank's Kevin Harrington extolling the value of investing in RAIDAtech.

RAIDAtech is now valued at $11 million and any investor anywhere can take part in this funding round with a minimum investment of $200. The earlier round was limited to only a small number of investors. This second funding round is managed by crowdfunding platform truCrowd.

RAIDAtech was founded last year by Sean Worthington and is a separate entity from the CloudCoin Consortium, although RAIDAtech's success will also benefit CloudCoin by expanding utility and value of the RAIDA network's native currency.
Big week of news for quantum computing
Quantum computing technology continues to advance at a rapid pace, and RAIDA is the only quantum-safe technology for digital assets. Bitcoin and every other blockchain-based asset will be obsolete with the coming advent of quantum computers.

Quantum computers rely on quantum mechanical phenomena like superposition and quantum entanglement to boost computational power millions of times versus conventional computers.

Earn CloudCoins & $$$ as a RAIDA Detection Agent
There are still slots remaining for people interested in becoming founding RAIDA Detection Agents.

Operators of these units help make the RAIDA network stronger, faster, and more secure. Operators earn a portion of network traffic revenues, as well as
a bonus paid in Cloudcoins. Be advised, however, there are a limited number of special "Founders" opportunities available.

There is also a referral program where you can become a Detection Agent, with zero licensing fees, simply by referring potential operators.

Email solutions@raidatech.com for more information about becoming a Detection Agent operator or joining the referral program.
Happy Birthday to Sean Worthington!
Last week was the birthday of CloudCoin founder Sean Worthington . Sean's vision, determination and tireless efforts have made CloudCoin the world's top post-blockchain digital currency. Cheers and hopes for many more!
Fast Facts
Every CloudCoin must be powned (password-owned) at least once every 24 months to ensure that coins are never permanently lost.

New owners should pown when they acquire coins in order to take ownership, the re-pown existing coins every two years if they have not been used, transferred or spent.

A large number of CloudCoins were exchanged in the final months of 2017, when many people learned about CloudCoin for the first time. Holders of those coins are reminded to re-pown their coins before two years have passed.

Powning can be done using any of the CloudCoin app s by exporting and re-importing the coins or can be done online here .
Interested in using your talents to make a difference?
Are you interested in using your talents and experience to make a difference? Do you have a passion for learning about the revolutionary new world of digital currency? Would you like to connect with like-minded, liberty-loving people from around the globe?

Consider joining the CloudCoin Consortium. There are opportunities available in numerous capacities. Whether you can spare a few hours a week or devote several hours a day working from the privacy and comfort of your own home, or are available to join us in our California HQ, we encourage you to apply. If you have experience in any of the following fields, visit our Opportunities page with a resume or CV.

  • Social Media pros and community managers
  • Marketers and PR experts
  • Content creators
  • Web developers
  • Filmmakers and video specialists
  • Graphic designers
  • Writers and bloggers
  • Attorneys/Paralegals
  • Grant Writers
  • Software developers/programmers
  • Software testers for all operating systems
  • Software solutions salespeople
  • Minecraft developers/modders
  • Electron programmers
  • HR/personnel professionals
  • Accounting/bookkeeping professionals
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